The earth's water and atmosphere, consequently life on earth, evolved from the gases produced by volcanic eruptions.

Rich volcanic soils form by alteration of volcanic products.

Geothermal power

Health spas and hot springs for recreation and health. An example is Beppu, Japan.

Hydroelectric power from rivers flowing off large volcanoes.

Recreation: skiing, hiking, tourism, and learning about volcanoes first-hand (Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Mount Rainier National Park; Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument from GORP; Mount St. Helens from Volcano World; Crater Lake National Park; Yellowstone National Park, and others).

Source for precious gems -- diamonds. Semi-precious gems -- opal.

Source for metals -- gold, silver, molybdenum, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury.

Earth and human history. Burial by volcanic ash of whatever is on the earth's surface; archeological sites of early human ancestors; preservation of historic cultures such as at Pompeii; preserves fossils of past animals and plants.

Construction materials: Naturally-broken aggregate for road construction and cinder athletic tracks; cut blocks from hardened volcanic ash for buildings and walls; water-resistant concrete from volcanic ash.

Miscellaneous: drilling-mud for water, gas and oil wells; kitty litter; clay filler for bread and ice milk products; stone-washed jeans with pumice; volcanic glass shards for polishing compounds and abrasives in toothpaste, kitchen cleansers and dirty sinks.

Copyright (C) 1997, by Richard V. Fisher. All rights reserved.